Perception and Judgment Lab

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Todorov, A. (2017). Face Value: The Irresistible Influence of First Impressions. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Read Chapter 1.

Todorov, A., Fiske, S. T., & Prentice, D. (Eds.). (2011). Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind. Oxford University Press.

In press & 2023

Agüera y Arcas, B., Mitchell, M., & Todorov, A. (In press). Physiognomy in the age of AI. In J. Browne, S. Kave, E. Drage, & K. Mackereth (Eds.), Feminist AI: Critical Perspectives on Algorithms, Data and Intelligent Machines. Oxford University Press.

Bagnis, A., Todorov, A., Altizio, I., Colonnello, V., Fanti, S., Russo, P. M., & Mattarozzi, K. (2023). Familiarity from facial appearance leads to hypoalgesia. The Journal of Pain, 24, 2040-2051.

Martinez, J. E., & Todorov, A. (In press). Mapping varied mental representations: The case of representing illegalized immigrants. Social Cognition.

Oh, D., Wedel, N., Labbree, B., & Todorov, A. (2023). Trustworthiness judgments without the halo effect: A data-driven computational modeling approach. Perception, 52, 590-607.

Todorov, A., Uddenberg, S., & Albohn, D. N. (2023). Generative models for visualizing idiosyncratic impressions. British Journal of Psychology, 114, 511-514. https://doi. org/10.1111/bjop.12622.

Uddenberg, S., Thompson, B. D., Vlasceanu, M., Griffiths, T. L., & Todorov, A. (2023). Iterated learning reveals stereotypes of facial trustworthiness that propagate in the absence of evidence. Cognition, 237, 105452.


Albohn, D. N., Uddenberg, S. & Todorov, A. (2022). A data-driven, hyper-realistic method for visualizing individual mental representations of faces. Frontiers in Psychology, 13: 997498. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.997498

Peterson, J. C., Uddenberg, S., Griffiths, T. L., Todorov, A., & Suchow, J. W. (2022). Deep models of superficial face judgments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 119 (17), E2115228119. PS: Reflections on ML models of first impressions.

Todorov, A. (2022). From spontaneous trait inferences to spontaneous person impressions. In E. Balcetis & G. B. Moskowitz (Eds.), The Handbook of Impression Formation: A Social Psychological Approach (pp. 20-33). Routledge: Taylor & Francis.

Todorov, A. (October 20, 2022). Why reading faces is a dangerous game? Chicago Booth Review.

Wang, S., Cao, R., Lin, C., Li, X., Todorov, A., Brandmeir, N., & Hodge, J. (2022). A neuronal social trait space for first impressions in the human amygdala and hippocampus. Molecular Psychiatry.


Cao, R., Todorov, A., Brandmeir, N., & Wang, S. (2021). Task modulation of single-neuron activity in the human amygdala and hippocampus. eNeuro, 9 (1) ENEURO.0398-21.2021.

Mattarozzi, K., Caponera, E., Russo, P. M., Colonnello, V., Bassetti, M., Farolfi, E., & Todorov, A. (2021). Pain and satisfaction: Healthcare providers’ facial appearance matters. Psychological Research, 85, 1706-1712.

Perizzolo Pointet, V. C., Moser, D. A., Vital, M., Rusconi Serpa, S., Todorov, A., & Schechter, D. S. (2021). Violence exposure is associated with atypical appraisal of threat among women: An EEG study. Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 576852. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.576852

Sklar, A. Y., Goldstein, A. Y., Abir, Y., Goldstein, A., Dotsch, R., Todorov, A., & Hassin, R. R. (2021). Did you see it? Robust individual differences in the speed with which meaningful visual stimuli break suppressionCognition, 211: 104638.

Todorov, A., & Oh, D. (2021). The structure and perceptual basis of social judgments from faces. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 63, 189-246.


Cao, R., Li, X., Todorov, A., & Wang, S. (2020). A flexible neural representation of faces in the human brain. Cerebral Cortex Communications, 1, 1-12.

Ferrari, C., Oh, D., Labbree, B. P., & Todorov, A. (2020). Learning the affective value of people: More than affect-based mechanisms. Acta Psychologica, 203, 103011.

Jaeger, B., Todorov, A., Evans, A. M., & van Beest, I. (2020). Can we reduce facial biases? Persistent effects of facial trustworthiness on sentencing decisions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 90, 10404.

Martinez, J. E., Funk, F., & Todorov, A. (2020). Quantifying idiosyncratic and shared contributions to judgment. Behavior Research Methods, 52, 1428-1444.

Oh, D., Dotsch, R., Porter, J., & Todorov, A. (2020). Gender biases in impressions from faces: Empirical studies and computational models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 149, 323-342.

Oh, D., Grant-Villegas, N., & Todorov, A. (2020). The eye wants what the heart wants: Female face preferences are related to partner personality preferencesJournal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 46, 1328-1343.

Oh, D., Shafir, E., & Todorov, A. (2020). Economic status cues from clothes affect perceived competence from faces. Nature Human Behavior, 4, 287-293.


Atias, D., Todorov, A., Liraz, S., Eidinger, A., Dror, I., Maymon, Y., & Aviezer, H. (2019). Loud and unclear: Intense real-life vocalizations during affective situations are perceptually ambiguous and contextually malleable. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148, 1842-1848.

Ferrari, C., Papagno, C., Todorov, A., & Cattaneo, Z. (2019). Differences in emotion recognition from body and face cues between deaf and hearing individuals. Multisensory Research, 32,499-519.

Mattarozzi, K., Colonnello, V., Russo, P. M., & Todorov, A. (2019). Person information facilitates memory for face identity. Psychological Research, 83, 1817-1824.

Oh, D., Buck, E. A., & Todorov, A. (2019). Revealing hidden gender biases in competence impressions from facesPsychological Science, 30, 65-79.

Oh, D., Dotsch, R., & Todorov, A. (2019). Contributions of shape and reflectance information to social judgments from faces. Vision Research, 165, 131-142.


Abir, Y., Sklar, A., Dotsch, R. R., Todorov, A., & Hassin, R. (2018). The determinants of consciousness of human faces. Nature Human Behavior, 2, 194-199.

Agüera y Arcas, B., Todorov, A., & Mitchell, M. (2018). Do algorithms reveal sexual orientation or just expose our stereotypes? Medium. Available at

FeldmanHall, O., Dunsmoor, J., Tompary, A., Hunter, L. E., Todorov, A., & Phelps, E. A. (2018). Stimulus generalization as a mechanism for learning to trust. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA,115 (7), E1690-E1697.

Olivola, C. Y., Tingley, D., & Todorov, A. (2018). Republican voters prefer candidates who have conservative-looking faces: New evidence from exit polls. Political Psychology, 39, 1157-1171.

Todorov, A. (2018). Flexible updating of beliefs in order to forgive. News and Views, Nature Human Behavior, 2, 722-723.

Todorov, A. (2018). Can we read a person’s character from facial images? Scientific American. Available at

Verosky, S. C., Porter, J., Martinez, J. E., & Todorov, A. (2018). Robust effects of affective person learning on evaluation of faces. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114, 516-528.

Wang, S., Falvello, V., Porter, J., Said, C. P., & Todorov, A. (2018). Behavioral and neural adaptation in approach behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 30, 885-897.


Agüera y Arcas, B., Mitchell, M., & Todorov, A. (2017). Physiognomy’s new clothes. Medium. Available at

Brinkman, L., Todorov, A., & Dotsch, R. (2017). Visualising mental representations: A primer on noise-based reverse correlation in social psychology. European Review of Social Psychology, 28, 333-361.

Funk, F., Walker, M., & Todorov, A. (2017). Modelling perceptions of criminality and remorse from faces using a data-driven computational approach. Cognition and Emotion, 31, 1431-1443.

Kurosu, A., & Todorov, A. (2017). The shape of novel objects contributes to shared impressions. Journal of Vision, 17(13): 14, 1–20.

Mattarozzi, K., Colonnello, V., Gioia, F. De, & Todorov, A. (2017). I care, even after the first impression: Facial appearance-based evaluations in healthcare context. Social Science & Medicine, 182, 68-72.

Olivola, C. Y., & Todorov, A. (2017). The biasing effects of appearances go beyond physical attractiveness and mating motives. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,40, 33-34.

Sofer, C., Dotsch, R., Oikawa, M., Oikawa, H., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & Todorov, A. (2017). For your local eyes only: Culture-specific face typicality influences perceptions of trustworthiness. Perception, 46, 914-928.


Adolphs, R., Nummenmaa, L., Todorov, A., & Haxby, J. V. (2016). Data-driven approaches in the investigation of social perception. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 371, 20150367; doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0367.

Dotsch, R., Hassin, R. R., & Todorov, A. (2016). Statistical learning shapes face evaluation. Nature Human Behavior, 1, 0001, 1-6; doi: 10.1038/s41562-016-0001.

Ferrari, C., Lega, C., Vernice, M., Tamietto, M., Mende-Siedlecki, P., Vecchi, T., Todorov, A., & Cattaneo, Z. (2016). The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex plays a causal role in integrating social impressions from faces and verbal descriptions. Cerebral Cortex, 26, 156-165.

Ferrari, C., Vecchi, T., Todorov, A., & Cattaneo, Z. (2016). Interfering with activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex via TMS affects social impressions updating. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 16, 626-634.

Man, V., Ames, D. L., Todorov, A., & Cunningham, W. A. (2016). Amygdala tuning toward self and other. In J. D. Greene, I. Morrison, & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Positive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.

Martinez, L., Falvello, V. B., Aviezer, H., & Todorov, A. (2016). Contributions of facial expressions and body language to the rapid perception of dynamic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 5, 939-952.

Mende-Siedlecki, P. & Todorov, A. (2016). Neural dissociations between meaningful and mere inconsistency in impression updating. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 11, 1489-1500.

Toscano, H., Schubert, T. W., Dotsch, R., Falvello, V., & Todorov, A. (2016). Physical strength as a cue to dominance: A data-driven approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42, 1603-1616.

Trémeau, F., Antonius, D., Todorov, A., Rebani, Y., Ferrari, K. et al. (2016). What can the study of first impressions tell us about attitudinal ambivalence and paranoia in schizophrenia? Psychiatry Research, 238, 86-92.


Ames, D. L., Honey, C. J., Chow, M., Todorov, A, & Hasson, U. (2015). Contextual alignment of cognitive and neural dynamics. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27, 655-664.

Aviezer, H., Messinger, D. S., Zangvil, S., Mattson, W. I., Gangi, D. N., & Todorov, A. (2015). Thrill of victory or agony of defeat? Perceivers fail to utilize information in facial movements. Emotion, 15, 791-797.

Dunham, Y., Stepanova, E. V., Dotsch, R., Todorov, A. (2015). The development of race-based perceptual categorization: Skin color dominates early category judgments. Developmental Science, 18, 469-483.

Falvello, V. B., Vinson, M., Ferrari, C., & Todorov, A. (2015). The robustness of learning about the trustworthiness of other people. Social Cognition, 33, 368-386.

Mattarozzi, K., Todorov, A., & Codispoti, M. (2015). Memory for faces: The effect of facial appearance and the context in which the face is encountered. Psychological Research, 79, 308-317.

Mattarozzi, K., Todorov, A., Marzocchi, M., Vicari, A., & Russo, P. M. (2015). Effects of gender and personality on first impression. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0135529. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135529.

Mende-Siedlecki, P. & Todorov, A. (2015). Trust perception. In M. Lieberman (Ed.), Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference (Volume 3, pp. 131-135). Academic Press: Elsevier.

Petrican, R., Todorov, A., Burris, C. T., Rosenbaum, R. S., & Grady, S. (2015). The look that binds: 
Partner-directed altruistic motivation and biased perception in married couples. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 39, 165-179.

Sofer, C., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & Todorov, A. (2015). What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness. Psychological Science, 26, 39-47.

Todorov, A., Funk, F., & Olivola, C. Y. (2015). Response to Bonnefon et al.: Limited ‘kernels of truth’ in facial inferences.Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19, 422-423.

Todorov, A., Olivola, C. Y., Dotsch, R., & Mende-Siedlecki, P. (2015). Social attributions from faces: Determinants, consequences, accuracy, and functional significance. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 519-545.

Trémeau, F., Antonius, D., Todorov, A., Rebani, Y., Ferrari, K. et al. (2015). Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 71, 112-119.


Cogsdill, E., Todorov, A., Spelke, E., & Banaji, M. R. (2014). Inferring character from faces: A developmental study. Psychological Science, 25, 1132-1139.

Hansen, K., Gerbasi, M., Todorov, A., Kruse, E., & Pronin, E. (2014). Claiming objectivity after knowingly using a biased strategy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 691-699.

Masip, D., North, M. S., Todorov, A., & Osherson, D. N. (2014). Automated prediction of preferences using facial expressions. PLoS ONE9(2): e87434.doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0087434.

McAleer, P., Todorov, A., & Belin, P. (2014). How do you say “Hello”? Personality impressions from brief novel voices. PLoS ONE9(3): e90779. doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0090779.

Mende-Siedlecki, P., & Todorov, A. (2014). The role of the amygdala in face processing. In M. Gazzaniga & G. R. Mangun (Eds.), The Cognitive Neurosciences V (pp. 767-776). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Olivola, C. Y., Funk, F., & Todorov, A. (2014). Social attributions from faces bias human choices. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18, 566-570.

Petrican, R., Todorov, A., & Grady, S. (2014). Personality at face value: Facial appearance predicts self and other personality judgments among strangers and spouses. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38, 259-277.

Todorov, A., & Porter, J. (2014). Misleading first impressions: Different for different images of the same personPsychological Science, 25, 1404-1417.


Funk, F., & Todorov, A. (2013). Criminal stereotypes in the courtroom: Facial tattoos affect guilt and punishment differently. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19, 466-478.

Mende-Siedlecki, P., Baron, S. G., & Todorov, A. (2013). Diagnostic value underlies asymmetric updating of impressions in the morality and ability domains. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 19406-19415.

Mende-Siedlecki, P., Cai, Y., & Todorov, A. (2013). The neural dynamics of updating person impressions. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 8, 623-631.

Mende-Siedlecki, P., Said, C. P., & Todorov, A. (2013). The social evaluation of faces: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 8, 285-299.

Mende-Siedlecki, P. M., Verosky, S. C., Turk-Browne, N. B., & Todorov, A. (2013). Robust selectivity for faces in the human amygdala in the absence of expressions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 2086-2106.

Sussman, A. B., Petkova, K., & Todorov, A. (2013). Competence ratings in US predict presidential election outcomes in Bulgaria. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 771-775.

Todorov, A., Dotsch, R., Porter, J. M., Oosterhof, N. N., & Falvello, V. B. (2013). Validation of data-driven computational models of social perception of faces. Emotion, 13, 724-738.

Todorov, A., & Mende-Siedlecki, P. M. (2013). The cognitive and neural basis of impression formation. In K. Ochsner & S. Kossyln (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 2 (pp. 188-203).New York: Oxford University Press.

Todorov, A., Mende-Siedlecki, P. M., & Dotsch, R. (2013). Social judgments from facesCurrent Opinion in Neurobiology, 23, 373-380.

Verosky, S. C., & Todorov, A. (2013). When physical similarity matters: Mechanisms underlying affective learning generalization to the evaluation of novel faces. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 661-669.

Verosky, S. C., Todorov, A., & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2013). Representations of individuals in ventral temporal cortex defined by faces and biographies. Neuropsychologia, 51, 2100-2108.


Aviezer, H., Trope, Y., & Todorov, A. (2012). Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions. Science, 338, 1225-1229.

Aviezer, H., Trope, Y., & Todorov, A. (2012). Holistic person processing: Faces with bodies tell the whole story. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 20-37.

Dotsch, R., & Todorov, A. (2012). Reverse correlating social face perceptionSocial Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 562-571.

Masip, D., Todorov, A., & Marca, J. V. (2012). The role of facial regions in evaluating social dimensions. In A. Fusiello, V. Murino, & R. Cucchiara (Eds.), Computer Vision – ECCV 2102. Workshops and Demonstrations (pp. 210-219). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Morewedge, C. K., & Todorov, A. (2012). The least likely act: Overweighting atypical past behavior in behavioral predictionsSocial Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 760-766.

North, M. S., Todorov, A., Osherson, D. N. (2012). Accuracy of inferring self- and other-preferences from spontaneous facial expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 36, 227-233.

Olivola, C. Y., Sussman, A. B., Tsetsos, K., Kang, O. E., & Todorov, A. (2012). Republicans prefer Republican-looking leaders: Political facial stereotypes predict candidate electoral success among right-leaning voters. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 605-613.

Quadflieg, S., Todorov, A., Laguesse, R., & Rossion, B. (2012). Normal face-based judgments of social characteristics despite severely impaired holistic face processing. Visual Cognition, 20, 865-882.

Stewart, L. H., Ajina, S., Getov, S., Bahrami, B., Todorov, A., & Rees, G. (2012). Unconscious evaluation of faces on social dimensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 715-727.

Todorov, A. (2012). The role of the amygdala in face perception and evaluation. Motivation & Emotion, 36, 16-26.

Todorov, A. (2012). The social perception of faces. In S. T. Fiske & C. N. Macrae (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Social Cognition (pp. 96-114). SAGE Publications.


Ames, D. L., Fiske, S. T., & Todorov, A. (2011). Impression formation: A focus on others’ intents. In J. Decety & J. Cacioppo (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Neuroscience(pp. 419-433)Oxford University Press.

Baron, S. G., Gobbini, M. I., Engell, A. D., & Todorov, A. (2011). Amygdala and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex responses to appearance-based and behavior-based person impressions. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 6, 572-581.

Borjon, J. I., Shepherd, S. V., Todorov, A., & Ghazanfar, A. A. (2011). Eye-gaze and arrow cues influence elementary sound perception. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 278, 1997-2004.

McGraw, P. A., Todorov, A., & Kunreuther, H. (2011). A policy maker’s dilemma: Preventing terrorism or preventing blame. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115,25-34.

Rojas, Q, M., Masip, D., Todorov, A., & Vitrià, J. (2011). Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: Appearance vs. structural models. PLoS ONE6(8): e23323. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023323.

Said, C. P., Haxby, J. V., & Todorov, A. (2011). Brain systems for assessing the affective value of faces. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 336, 1660-1670.

Said, C. P., & Todorov, A. (2011). A statistical model of facial attractiveness. Psychological Science, 22, 1183-1190.

Todorov, A. (2011). Evaluating faces on social dimensions. In A. Todorov, S. T. Fiske, & D. Prentice (Eds.), Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind (pp. 54-76). Oxford University Press.

Todorov, A., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D., & Said, C. P. (2011). Data-driven methods for modeling social perceptionSocial and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 775-791.

Todorov, A., & Oosterhof, N. N. (2011). Modeling social perception of faces. Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, 28, 117-122.

Todorov, A., Said, C. P., Oosterhof, N. N., & Engell, A. D. (2011). Task-invariant brain responses to the social value of faces. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2766-2781.

Todorov, A., Said, C. P., & Verosky, S. C. (2011). Personality impressions from facial appearance. In A. Calder, J. V. Haxby, M. Johnson, & G. Rhodes (Eds.), Handbook of Face Perception (pp. 631-652).Oxford University Press.


Engell, A. D., Todorov, A., & Haxby, J. V. (2010). Common neural mechanisms for the evaluation of facial trustworthiness and emotional expressions as revealed by behavioral adaptation. Perception, 39, 931-941.

Mattes, K., Spezio, M., Kim, H., Todorov, A., Adolphs, R., & Alvarez, R. M. (2010). Predicting election outcomes from positive and negative trait assessments of candidate images. Political Psychology, 31, 41-58.

McGraw, P. A., Shafir, E., & Todorov, A. (2010). Valuing money and things: Why a $20 item can be worth more and less than $20. Management Science, 56, 816-830.

North, M. S., Todorov, A., Osherson, D. N. (2010). Inferring the preferences of others from spontaneous, low-emotional facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 1109-1113.

Olivola, C. Y., & Todorov, A. (2010). Elected in 100 milliseconds: Appearance-based trait inferences and voting. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 34, 83-110.

Olivola, C. Y., & Todorov, A. (2010). Fooled by first impressions? Re-examining the diagnostic value of appearance-based inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 315-324.

Rojas, Q, M., Masip, D., Todorov, A., & Vitrià, J. (2010). Automatic point-based facial trait judgments evaluation. Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2715-2720; doi: 10.1109/CVPR.2010.5539993.

Said, C. P., Dotsch, R., & Todorov, A. (2010). The amygdala and FFA track both social and non-social face dimensions. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3596-3605.

Said, C. P., Moore, C. D., Engell, A. D., Todorov, A., & Haxby, J.V. (2010). Distributed representations of dynamic facial expressions in the superior temporal sulcus. Journal of Vision, 10(5): 11, 1-12.

Said, C. P., Moore, C. D., Norman, K. A., Haxby, J. V., & Todorov, A. (2010). Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 4,1-8.

Todorov, A., Loehr, V., & Oosterhof, N. N. (2010). The obligatory nature of holistic processing of faces in social judgments. Perception,39, 514-532.

Verosky, S. C., & Todorov, A.(2010). Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces. Psychological Science, 21, 779-785.

Verosky, S. C., & Todorov, A. (2010). Differential neural responses to faces physically similar to the self as a function of their valence. NeuroImage, 49, 1690-1698.


Goren, A., & Todorov, A. (2009). Two faces are better than one: Eliminating false trait associations with faces. Social Cognition, 27, 222-248.

Hall, C. C, Goren, A., Chaiken, S., & Todorov, A. (2009). Shallow cues with deep effects: Trait judgments from faces and voting decisions. In E. Borgida, J. L. Sullivan, & C. M. Federico (Eds.), The Political Psychology of Democratic Citizenship(pp. 73-99). Oxford University Press.

Olivola, C. Y., & Todorov, A. (May 5, 2009). The look of a winner: The emerging – and disturbing – science of how candidates’ physical appearances influence our choice in leaders. Mind Matters blog of Scientific American.

Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. (2009). Shared perceptual basis of emotional expressions and trustworthiness impressions from faces. Emotion, 9, 128-133.

Said, C. P., Baron, S., & Todorov, A. (2009). Nonlinear amygdala response to face trustworthiness: Contributions of high and low spatial frequency information. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 519-528.

Said, C., Sebe, N., & Todorov, A. (2009). Structural resemblance to emotional expressions predicts evaluation of emotionally neutral faces. Emotion, 9, 260-264.

Todorov, A. (2009). Mapping the social space of the face. Psychological Science Agenda, March 2010, American Psychological Association.

Todorov, A. (2009). On the richness and limitations of dimensional models of social perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 402-403.

Todorov, A., Pakrashi, M., & Oosterhof, N. N. (2009). Evaluating faces on trustworthiness after minimal time exposure. Social Cognition, 27, 813-833.


Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. (2008). The functional basis of face evaluation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 11087-11092. Supporting Information.

Spezio, M., Rangel, A., Alvarez, M., O’Doherty, J., Mattes, K., Todorov, A., Kim, H., & Adolphs, R. (2008). A neural basis for the effect of candidate appearance on election outcomes. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 3, 344-352.

Todorov, A. (2008). Evaluating faces on trustworthiness: An extension of systems for recognition of emotions signaling approach/ avoidance behaviors. In A. Kingstone & M. Miller (Eds.), The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience 2008, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 208-224.

Todorov, A., Baron, S., & Oosterhof, N. N. (2008). Evaluating face trustworthiness: A model based approach. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 3, 119-127.

Todorov, A., & Duchaine, B. (2008). Reading trustworthiness in faces without recognizing faces. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 25, 395-410.

Todorov, A., & Engell, A. (2008). The role of the amygdala in implicit evaluation of emotionally neutral faces. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 3, 303-312.

Todorov, A., & Olson, I. (2008). Robust learning of affective trait associations with faces when the hippocampus is damaged, but not when the amygdala and temporal pole are damaged. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 3, 195-203.

Todorov, A., Said, C. P., Engell, A. D., & Oosterhof, N. N. (2008). Understanding evaluation of faces on social dimensions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 455-460.


Ballew, C. C., & Todorov, A. (2007). Predicting political elections from rapid and unreflective face judgments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104, 17948-17953.

Engell, A. D., Haxby, J. V., & Todorov, A. (2007). Implicit trustworthiness decisions: Automatic coding of face properties in human amygdala. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 1508-1519.

Hall, C. C., Ariss, L., & Todorov, A. (2007). The illusion of knowledge: When more information reduces accuracy and increases confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103, 277-290.

Todorov, A., Gobbini, M. I., Evans, K. K, & Haxby, J. V. (2007). Spontaneous retrieval of affective person knowledge in face perceptionNeuropsychologia, 45, 163-173.

Todorov, A., Goren, A., & Trope, Y. (2007). Probability as a psychological distance: Construal and preferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 473-482.

2006 and 2005

Oppenheimer, M., & Todorov, A. (Eds). (2006). Global warming: The psychology of long-term risk. Special issue of Climatic Change, 77(1-2), 1-210.

Todorov, A., Harris, L. T., & Fiske, S. T. (2006). Toward socially inspired social neuroscienceBrain Research, 1079, 76-85.

Willis, J., & Todorov, A. (2006). First impressions: Making up your mind after 100 ms exposure to a face. Psychological Science, 17, 592-598.

Harris, L. T., Todorov, A., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). Attributions on the brain: Neuro-imaging dispositional inferences, beyond theory of mind. NeuroImage, 28, 763-769.

Hasson, U., Simmons, J. P., & Todorov, A. (2005). Believe it or not: On the possibility of suspending belief. Psychological Science, 16, 566-571.

Todorov, A., Mandisodza, A. N., Goren, A., & Hall, C. C. (2005). Inferences of competence from faces predict election outcomes. Science, 308, 1623-1626.

Uleman, J. S., Blader, S., & Todorov, A. (2005). Implicit impressions. In R. Hassin, J. S. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The New Unconscious(pp. 362-392). New York: Oxford University Press.

2004 and 2003

Darley, J. & Todorov, A. (2004). Psychologists seek the unexpected not the negative to provoke innovative theory construction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 331-332.

Todorov, A., & Mandisodza, A. N. (2004). Public opinion on foreign policy: The multilateral public that perceives itself as unilateral. Public Opinion Quarterly, 68, 323-348.

Todorov, A., & Uleman, J. S. (2004). The person reference process in spontaneous trait inferences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 482-493.

Todorov, A. (2003). Cognitive procedures for correcting proxy-response biases in surveys. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 215-224.

Todorov, A. & Uleman, J. S. (2003). The efficiency of binding spontaneous trait inferences to actors’ faces. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 549-562.

2002 and 2001

Todorov, A. (2002). Communication effects on memory and judgment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 531-546.

Todorov, A. & Bargh, J. A. (2002). Automatic sources of aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7, 53-68.

Todorov, A., Chaiken, S., & Henderson, M. D. (2002). The heuristic-systematic model of social information processing. In J. P. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The Persuasion Handbook: Developments in Theory and Practice (pp. 195-211). SAGE.

Todorov, A. & Uleman, J. S. (2002). Spontaneous trait inferences are bound to actors’ faces: Evidence from a false recognition paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1051-1065.

2000 and before

Todorov, A. (2000). The accessibility and applicability of knowledge: Predicting context effects in national surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 429-451.

Todorov, A. (2000). Context effects in national health surveys: Effects of preceding questions on reporting serious difficulty seeing and legal blindness. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 65-76.

Todorov, A. & Kirchner, C. (2000). Bias in proxies’ reports of disability: Data from the National Health Interview Survey on Disability. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1248-1253.

Todorov, A., Lalljee, M., & Hirst, W. (2000). Communication context, explanation and social judgment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 199-209.

Todorov, A. (1997). Another look at reasoning experiments: Rationality, normative models and conversational factors. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 27, 387-417.

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